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baker's special

bar sugar

beet sugar

berry sugar

brown sugar  See light brown sugar or dark brown sugar  Substitutes:  brown sugar substitute

cane sugar

caster sugar

castor sugar

Chinese sugar = Chinese rock sugar = rock sugar   Notes:  This includes yellow rock sugar = yellow lump sugar (pictured) or clear rock sugar.  Substitutes: granulated sugar (sweeter; substitute 1 tablespoon for each Chinese sugar crystal)

cinnamon sugar  To make your own:  Mix together 7 parts granulated sugar and 1 part cinnamon.

coconut sugar

confectioner's sugar


custard powder  Notes:  Bird's is a popular brand.  Look for this in British specialty markets.  Substitutes:  instant vanilla pudding mix (Substitute measure for measure)

dark brown sugar   (1 C = 6 ounces) Substitutes: 1 C light brown sugar + 1 tablespoon molasses OR 1 C granulated sugar + 2 tablespoons molasses

date sugar = dehydrated date pieces   Substitutes: granulated sugar (not as nutritious)

dehydrated date pieces

dehydrated sugar cane juice

demerara sugar = demerera sugar   Substitutes:   turbinado sugar OR granulated sugar OR light brown sugar

doughnut sugar = snow sugar = non-melting sugar   Notes:   This is similar to powdered sugar, only it doesn't melt as easily.  Commercial bakers use this on doughnuts and other pastries. 

extra-fine granulated sugar

fine granulated sugar

fructose = granulated fructose = fruit sugar = levulose   Pronunciation:  FROOK-tose  Notes:  A teaspoon of granulated fructose has about the same number of calories as a teaspoon of granulated sugar, but fructose is roughly twice as sweet. Many diabetics use it since it doesn't affect their blood sugar as dramatically as granulated sugar.   Look for it among the dietary foods or among the sugars in your supermarket.  Substitutes: honey (not as sweet) OR granulated sugar (sugar isn't as sweet as fructose--use 3 parts sugar to replace 2 parts fructose; sugar makes product drier and lighter)

fruit sugar

genuine maltose

golden brown sugar  See light brown sugar.

granulated fructose

granulated sugar = sugar = white sugar = sucrose = refined sugar = table sugar  

Equivalents:  1 pound = 2 1/3 Cups   



Varieties:   Regular sugar = fine granulated sugar = table sugar = standard granulated sugar = extra-fine granulated sugar is the standard table sugar we're all familiar with.   Superfine sugar = ultrafine sugar = bar sugar = instant dissolving sugar = berry sugar = castor sugar = caster sugar dissolves more quickly, and is recommended for sweetening beverages, and for making meringues, cakes, soufflés, and mousses. To make your own, grind standard granulated sugar in a food processor or blender for about a minute.  Baker's special has a grain size between standard granulated and superfine. Bakers use it in cakes because the fine granules improve the texture.  Sanding sugar has larger granules that sparkle when spinkled on baked goods and candies.  Coarse sugar has a larger grain size than regular granulated sugar. It tends not to change color or break down at high temperatures. It's similar to (and often mistaken for) sanding sugar.  colored sugar Beet sugar is derived from sugar beets, while cane sugar is derived from sugar cane. Both beet and cane sugars are 99.95% sucrose, but many bakers claim that the remaining .05% of trace minerals and proteins makes a difference, and that cane sugar performs better. Some cane sugar is processed using a by-product of animal bones, so some vegetarians prefer beet sugar to cane.  Some manufacturers don't specify whether their product is beet sugar or cane sugar.  



for baking:

In hot cereals:

Links:  For tips on how to reduce sugar in recipes, visit Preparing Healthy Food: How to Modify a Recipe.  See also the Sweeteners for Vegans posting on RecipeSource.com, and the North Dakota State University Extension Service's Sweetener Substitutions page.  For tips on cooking and baking with artificial sweeteners, visit Sweet'n Low's FAQ page

granulated sugar cane juice

icing sugar

instant dissolving sugar

invert sugar  Notes:   This is used by commercial bakers to keep baked goods moist or by candy makers to make more finely grained candies.  Look for it in candy making supply shops.

jaggery   Pronunciation:  JAG-uh-ree   Notes:    This is a tan, unrefined sugar that is common in India. It's made from the sap of palm trees or sugar cane and is much more flavorful than granulated sugar. It's often sold in solid cakes, but it should crumble when you squeeze it.  Look for it in Indian markets.    Substitutes:  Mix 1 C dark brown sugar + 2 teaspoons molasses OR palm sugar OR piloncillo OR brown sugar OR maple sugar OR date sugar

Java sugar

jus de canne


light brown sugar = golden brown sugar   (1C = 6 ounces) Substitutes: 2/3 C dark brown sugar + 1/3 C granulated sugar OR turbinado sugar

malt  Notes:  This mild sweetener is sold as a syrup or powder.  Diastatis malt is used by bread makers to feed the yeast and improve the texture.  Nondiastatic malt is used in bread as a flavoring and preservative.  


malt sugar = maltose = genuine maltose   Notes:  Look for this in Asian markets.  Substitutes: honey (much sweeter)

maple sugar = maple sprinkles   Notes:   This is made from maple syrup which has been dried and granulated.  It's often sprinkled on cereal and toast.  Substitutes:  date sugar = granulated sugar OR sucanat

marshmallow  Equivalents:  Ten large marshmallows = 1 C miniature marshmallows. To make your own:  See the Marshmallows recipe posted on Recipesource.com.  Substitutes: marshmallow creme (moister and sweeter) OR whipped cream (as topping on hot chocolate)

marshmallow creme = marshmallow fluff  Shopping hints:  Kraft is a well-known brand.   To make your own:  Gently heat 16 ounces of marshmallows plus 1/4 cup corn syrup in a double boiler, stirring constantly.

misri  Notes:  Look for bags of these sugar crystals in Indian markets.

muscovado sugar  Substitutes: dark brown sugar

palm sugar = coconut sugar = Java sugar   Notes:  Look for this is Indian or Asian markets.  It should crumble when you squeeze it.  Substitutes:  Mix 1 C dark brown sugar + 2 teaspoons molasses OR jaggery OR piloncillo OR brown sugar OR maple sugar OR date sugar



piloncillo = panela = panocha   Shopping hints: Look for cones of this in Mexican markets. Substitutes: Combine 1 C dark brown sugar with 2 tablespoons molasses (very close substitute) 

powdered sugar = confectioner's sugar = icing sugar   Substitutes: Mix 1 cup granulated sugar + 1 tablespoon corn starch in blender until powdery, stirring often OR (to sweeten whipped cream) artificial sweeteners (add after cream is completely whipped)  Links:  See also Powdered Sugar Replacement page for diabetics, and the Powdered Sugar Replacement page on www.vegweb.com.

raw sugar  Substitutes: turbinado sugar

refined sugar

regular sugar

sanding sugar

standard granulated sugar


sucanat = unrefined natural sugar = granulated sugar cane juice = dehydrated sugar cane juice   Substitutes: granulated sugar (fewer nutrients) OR brown sugar OR turbinado sugar



sugar cane  Notes:  These are fun to chew on.   They're available in the produce section either peeled (left) or unpeeled.  

superfine sugar

table sugar


turbinado sugar  Substitutes: demerara sugar OR light brown sugar OR raw sugar


 ultrafine sugar

unrefined natural sugar

vanilla sugar  To make your own: Put a vanilla bean in a pound of granulated sugar for a week.

white sugar

zucker hut = zuckerhut = sugar hat  Notes:  Look for this in German markets.  During the Christmas and New Year's holidays, Germans pour rum over the cones and ignite them to make feuerzangebowle, or fire tong punch.  



For information on using sweeteners in baked goods, visit the Functions of Baking Ingredients page, or the North Dakota State University's page on Sweetener Substitutions. See also the Table of Equivalents for Sugar Substitutes posted on SOAR.


Copyright © 1996-2005  Lori Alden