abalone = awabi = loco = muttonfish = paua Pronunciation: abba-LOW-nee Notes: Asian markets are a good place to find these. Prod them gently before buying to make sure they're alive. The smaller ones are better. Canned or dried abalones are acceptable substitutes for fresh in some dishes. Substitutes: ormer (smaller) OR geoduck clam OR conch OR other clams OR Flatten skinned and boned chicken or turkey breasts with a mallet, marinate in clam juice and crushed garlic, then sauté. Storage: Unopened canned abalone can be stored for up to a year in a dry, cool place. Once opened, it will keep for up to two days if you wrap it well and refrigerate it.
Atlantic surf clam
bar clam = hen clam = sea clam = Atlantic surf clam Substitutes: quahog clam
bay scallops = Chinese scallops Shopping hints: These are easier to find in the East than in the West. Frozen scallops are a good substitute for fresh. Substitutes: calico scallop (not as sweet) OR sea scallop (This is larger than the bay scallop, and less sweet and delicate. Consider cutting it into bite-size pieces before cooking.) OR shark meat (Note: Unscrupulous restaurants sometimes palm off shark meat as scallops to unsuspecting customers.) OR cod cheeks OR skate See also: scallops
bloody clam Latin: Argina pexta
calico scallop Substitutes: bay scallop (sweeter) OR sea scallop (This is larger than the calico scallop, and less sweet and delicate. Consider cutting it into bite-size pieces before cooking.) OR shark meat (Note: Unscrupulous restaurants sometimes palm off shark meat as scallops to unsuspecting customers.) OR cod cheeks OR skate
canal shrimp = kuruma ebi Notes: These are popular in Japan, where they're often served as tempura.
clam (See also pismo clam, soft-shell clam, razor clam, Manila clam, hard-shell clam, bar clam, and geoduck clam) Substitutes: mussel OR cockle OR abalone (tenderize first) OR scallop Storage: Unopened canned clams can be stored for up to a year in a dry, cool place. Once opened, it will keep for up to two days if you wrap it well and refrigerate it.
cockle Substitutes: clam
conch = lambi = lambie Pronunciation: KONK Notes: This is popular in Florida and the Caribbean. In other regions, your best bet is to look in Asian or Italian markets. Substitutes: whelk OR clams (stronger flavor, firmer texture) OR abalone (more expensive) crab
crawdad See crayfish
crawfish See crayfish
crayfish = crawfish = crawdad = ecrevisse = écrevisse Equivalents: Six pounds live crayfish = one pound peeled tails; 15 large crayfish = one pound Notes: Crayfish are very popular in Louisiana, where restaurants serve them on large platters along with bowls of melted butter. Buy live ones if you can; if not, large supermarkets sometimes stock frozen whole crayfish or crayfish tails. Get the whole crayfish if possible--most of the flavor resides in the shells. Allow one to two pounds per person. Substitutes: rock shrimp OR Dublin Bay prawns (larger) OR shrimp OR spiny lobster OR lobster OR walleye pike OR sheepshead OR crab
cuttlefish = sepia Notes: This is a close relative of squid and octopus. You can sometimes find dried cuttlefish in Asian markets. Substitutes: squid (smaller and less tender, but otherwise a fairly close substitute) OR baby octopus OR octopus (A large octopus is much tougher than a cuttlefish, and needs to be tenderized before you cook it. Simmer it in salted water for 20 minutes before adding it to stews, soups, or sauces. Before sautéing or grilling it, remove the suckers and ends of the legs and beat it with a mallet--or against some rocks, as they do in Greece.)
Dublin Bay prawn = Dublin prawn = Norway lobster = langoustine = scampi Substitutes: spiny lobster (larger) OR lobster (larger) OR crayfish (smaller) OR large shrimp
geoduck clam = gooeyduck clam Pronunciation: GOO-ey-duck Substitutes: other large clam OR abalone
green mussel = green shell mussel = New Zealand green mussel = greenshell mussel = greenlipped mussel
ground dried shrimp
hard-shell clam = hardshell clams Notes: Littleneck clams are smaller than cherrystone clams which are smaller than quahog clams = quahaug clams = chowder clams which are smaller than ocean quahog clams = ocean quahaug clams = mahogany clams = black clams. Substitutes: bar clams OR soft-shell clams
lobster Substitutes: spiny lobster (no claws, otherwise very similar) OR Dublin Bay prawns OR large shrimp OR crab (more delicate texture) OR monkfish (firmer texture) OR sheepshead OR walleye pike See also RecipeSource.com posting for Mock Lobster.
mussels Substitutes: oysters OR (steamed) soft-shelled clam (firmer texture; best served warm) OR littleneck clams (best served warm) OR other shellfish OR bluefish Storage: Unopened canned mussels can be stored for up to a year in a dry, cool place. Once opened, it will keep for up to two days if you wrap it well and refrigerate it.
ocean quahog clam
octopus Substitutes: squid (no need to tenderize, milder flavor) OR cuttlefish (no need to tenderize, milder flavor)
ormer Substitutes: abalone (larger) OR other clams
oyster Notes: The French like to serve these raw in the shell, with just a squirt of fresh lemon juice, but they can also be fried, grilled, or gently poached. If you eat them raw, you'll need to shuck them first; an oyster knife comes in handy for this. Substitutes: mussel OR (served raw) littleneck or cherrystone clam OR (deep-fat fried) soft-shell clam Storage: Unopened canned oysters can be stored for up to a year in a dry, cool place. Once opened, it will keep for up to two days if you wrap it well and refrigerate it. periwinkle = bigaros = sea snails = winkles Notes: These marine snails are better known in Europe and Japan than in the United States. They're great in any clam chowder recipe, though they tend to get tough if overcooked. Look for them in Asian markets. Substitutes: whelks OR conch OR clams OR escargot
pismo clam Substitutes: other clams (pismos are highly regarded)
Prince Edward Island mussel = PEI mussel = Island blue mussel Notes: These farmed-raised mussels are sweet and beardless.
quahog = quahog clam = quahaug clam = chowder clam See: hard shell clams
scallops (see also bay scallop, calico scallop, and sea scallop) Substitutes: shark meat (Note: Unscrupulous restaurants sometimes palm off shark meat as scallops to unsuspecting customers.) OR cod cheeks OR monkfish OR skate OR lobster OR crab OR sole OR flounder OR shrimp (firmer texture)
sea scallop Substitutes: bay or calico scallop (these are smaller than sea scallops, and more sweet and delicate) OR shark meat (Note: Unscrupulous restaurants sometimes palm off shark meat as scallops to unsuspecting customers.) OR cod cheeks OR skate OR monkfish shrimp = prawn Notes: There are many different species of shrimp, but generally speaking, the larger the shrimp, the tastier. In the US and Britain, large shrimp are called prawns; in India, all shrimp are prawns. Bay shrimp are very small. You can buy shrimp raw (sometimes called green), or cooked. Don't buy cooked shrimp if you plan to serve it warm--they turns rubbery when reheated. Unopened canned shrimp can be stored for up to a year in a dry, cool place. Once opened, it will keep for up to two days if you wrap it well and refrigerate it. Equivalents: One pound shrimp in shell will roughly yield 1/2 pound or one cup cooked shrimp. Substitutes: Dublin Bay prawns OR crayfish OR lobster OR scallops (more delicate texture) OR crab OR imitation seafood (less expensive) OR chicken shrimp meat = cooked shrimp soft-shell clam = steamer Includes: Highly regarded Maine steamers and Long Island steamers, and less esteemed Maryland steamers Substitutes: razor clam OR littleneck clams OR manila clam OR mussels
spiny lobster = rock lobster = langouste Substitutes: lobster (has claws, otherwise very similar) OR Dublin Bay prawns (smaller) OR large shrimp OR monkfish (firmer texture)
squid = calamari Substitutes: cuttlefish (under 8" long) OR octopus (stronger flavor; simmer first for 20 minutes in salted water to tenderize before adding to stews, soups, and sauces; remove suckers and ends of legs and beat before sautéing or grilling) OR shrimp OR chicken breast
surf clam surimi = imitation seafood = crab sticks = sea legs Substitutes: crab (tastier, more expensive)
whelk Substitutes: periwinkle OR conch
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