arugula [uh-REW-guh-la] = arrugola = (in ) rocket (salad) = tira = Italian cress = Mediterranean rocket = rugola = rugula = roquette = rucola With its peppery and slightly bitter flavor, arugula is a terrific green to throw into an otherwise boring salad. It can be gently braised, too. Some supermarkets sell it in small bunches, but you're more likely to find it combined with other greens in a spring salad mix. Equivalents: 1 cup = 1 ounce Substitutes: watercress OR tender spinach leaves plus dash of ground pepper OR Belgian endive OR escarole OR young dandelion greens (more bitter) OR young mustard greens OR chicory OR radicchio Britain
Belgian endive = French endive = witloof = witloof chicory = chicory (in Britain) = Belgium chicory = blanching chicory = Dutch chicory = green-leaved blanching chicory = chicon Notes: These crunchy, slightly bitter leaves are often used to make hors d'oeuvres, but they can also be chopped and added to salads, or braised to make an exquisite (and expensive) side dish. Select heads with yellow tips; those with green tips are more bitter. Their peak season is the late fall and winter. Substitutes: radicchio (similar flavor) OR arugula OR watercress
Bibb lettuce = limestone lettuce Notes: This butterhead lettuce has delicate, loose leaves and lots of flavor. The only downside is that it's usually expensive. Substitutes: Boston lettuce (larger) OR corn salad OR leaf lettuce OR celery leaves
Boston lettuce Notes: This is a type of butterhead lettuce, with soft, tender leaves. It's terrific in salads and sandwiches, or the leaves can be used as a bed for other dishes. Substitutes: Bibb lettuce (smaller, more flavorful, and more expensive) OR corn salad OR leaf lettuce OR iceberg lettuce OR celery leaves
butterhead lettuce = butter lettuce Notes: This category includes Bibb lettuce and Boston lettuce.
corn salad = mache = lamb's lettuce = lamb's tongue = field lettuce = field salad = fetticus Notes: Corn salad has tender leaves and a very mild flavor. Substitutes: butter lettuce OR Bibb lettuce
cress Notes: This is a peppery green that's great in salads, sandwiches, and soups. It's attractive enough to make a good garnish as well. There are several varieties, including watercress, upland cress, curly cress, and land cress. Cress is highly perishable, so try to use it as soon as possible after you buy it. Substitutes: arugula OR radish sprouts OR tender spinach leaves OR nasturtium leaves OR young dandelion greens OR Belgian endive OR purslane
curly endive = chicory = chicory endive = curly chicory = frisée = frisee = frise Notes: You can use this crisp, bitter green in salads or cook it as a side dish. The outer leaves are green and somewhat bitter; the pale inner leaves are more tender and mild. Don't confuse this with Belgian endive, which the British call chicory and the French call endive. Substitutes: escarole (milder flavor, different texture) OR radicchio OR dandelion greens OR mustard greens
dandelions = dandelion greens Notes: Dandelions have a somewhat bitter flavor, which Europeans appreciate more than Americans. Older dandelion greens should be cooked; younger ones can be cooked or served raw as a salad green. They're available year-round, but they're best in the spring. Substitutes: watercress (not as bitter) OR curly endive OR escarole OR arugula OR collard greens (if cooked)
endigia = red endive Notes: This crunchy new French variety blends sweet and bitter flavors. Substitutes: Belgian endive OR radicchio
endive Notes: This category includes Belgian endive, curly endive, frisee, and escarole.
escarole = Batavian endive = Batavia = scarole Notes: Escarole has sturdy leaves and a slightly bitter flavor. Young escarole leaves are tender enough to add to salads, otherwise escarole is best cooked as a side dish or used in soups. Substitutes: curly endive (stronger flavor, different flavor) OR radicchio OR borage OR mustard greens OR arugula OR spinach
green-leaf lettuce Substitutes: red-leaf lettuce (different color, but otherwise similar) OR bibb lettuce
iceberg lettuce = head lettuce = cabbage lettuce = crisphead lettuce Notes: This is prized for its crispness and longevity in the refrigerator, but it's a bit short on flavor and nutrients. Substitutes: romaine lettuce (also crunchy, and more flavorful) OR leaf lettuce
leaf lettuce = looseleaf lettuce = bunching lettuce = cutting lettuce = salad-bowl lettuce = lechuga Notes: With their crispness and mild flavor, these lettuces are great in salads and sandwiches. Substitutes: butterhead lettuce OR Romaine lettuce
lettuce Notes: These are mild salad greens that are always served fresh, either in salads or as garnishes. There are four basic categories: iceberg lettuce, with leaves that grow in a dense "head," leaf lettuce, with loosely gathered leaves, butterhead lettuce, with tender leaves that form a soft head, and romaine lettuce, with closely packed leaves in an elongated head. Select lettuce that has rich color and crisp, fresh-looking leaves. Substitutes: spinach (use only young leaves for salads) OR spring salad mix OR radicchio OR cress OR corn salad OR arugula
lollo rosso Notes: This mild, tender lettuce has ruffled red edges, Substitutes: red-leaf lettuce
mizuna = Japanese greens = spider mustard Notes: Mizuna has tender leaves and a pleasant, peppery flavor. Substitutes: young mustard greens (more pungent) OR arugula oakleaf lettuce = oak leaf lettuce Notes: Oakleaf lettuce has crunchy stems and tender leaves. There are red and green varieties. Substitutes: butter lettuce OR Romaine lettuce
radicchio = red chicory = red-leafed chicory = red Italian chicory = chioggia Pronunciation: rah-DEEK-ee-oh Notes: With its beautiful coloring and slightly bitter flavor, radicchio is wonderful when combined with other salad greens. You can also use the leaves as a base for hors d'oeuvres, or sauté them for a side dish. The most common variety, radicchio rosso (left), is round, while the treviso radicchio is elongated. Substitutes: Belgian endive OR escarole OR chicory OR red-leaf lettuce (for color)
red-leaf lettuce Substitutes: green-leaf lettuce (different color, but otherwise similar) OR radicchio (for color) red orach red mustard Notes: This has a pungent, peppery flavor that adds zip to salads. You can cook it, too. Substitutes: mizuna OR arugula
romaine lettuce = cos Notes: Romaine combines good flavor and crunch, plus it has a decent shelf life in the refrigerator. It's the preferred green for Caesar salad. Green romaine is the most common variety, but you can sometimes find red romaine, which is more tender. Substitutes: iceberg lettuce OR Boston lettuce
spring salad mix = mesclun = field greens = spring mix Notes: This is a mix of different young salad greens. Commercial mixes usually include arugula, mizuna, tat soi, frisee, oakleaf, red chard, radicchio, mustard greens, and radicchio.
tango Notes: This mild green lettuce has ruffled edges, which makes it an interesting salad lettuce Substitutes: green-leaf lettuce
taratezak Substitutes: watercress (leaves have smoother edges)
tat soi = spoon cabbage Notes: This has an interesting spoon-like shape and a peppery flavor. Substitutes: mizuna
trefoil Notes: Named for the three leaves that sprout from each stem, trefoil has a crunchy texture and aromatic flavor. It's great in salads or as a garnish in soups. Substitutes: sorrel OR celery leaves
winter purslane = Cuban spinach = miner's lettuce = claytonia Notes: This resembles ordinary purslane, only the leaves and stems are smaller and more delicate.
Copyright © 1996-2005 Lori Alden