Citrus fruits have stippled rinds that surround pulp that's tart, juicy, and rich in vitamin C and other nutrients. Most citrus fruits are first peeled, then the pulp is either eaten out of hand or squeezed to make juice, but some, like the kumquat, are eaten peel and all. The peels contain fragrant oils, and their zest is often used to flavor foods. When buying citrus fruit, select specimens that are smaller, thin-skinned, and heavy for their size. They keep longer if you store them in the refrigerator.
bergamot = bergamot orange Pronunciation: BUHR-gah-mot Notes: This is a small acidic orange, used mostly for its peel. Don't confuse it with the herb that goes by the same name. Substitutes: limes
blood orange = pigmented orange Notes: These red-fleshed oranges are more popular in Europe than in the United States. Look for them in the winter and spring. Substitutes: orange (flesh orange, not red, more acidic) OR tangerines (sweeter) Buddha's hand citron = Buddha's fingers citron = fingered citron Notes: This fragrant fruit has hardly any flesh, but the peel can be candied. Substitutes: citron OR lemon
calamansi (lime) See kalamansi (lime).
calamondin = calamondin orange = China orange = Panama orange Substitutes: kumquats (slightly smaller) OR kalamansi
cedro See citron.
China orange See calamondin (orange).
Chinese grapefruit See pomelo.
clementine orange See mandarin orange.
fingered citron See Buddha's hand citron.
Florida key lime See lime.
grapefruit Notes: A grapefruit is a large, slightly tart kind of citrus fruit. The rind is mostly yellow, and often tinged with green or red. Grapefruits are categorized by the color of their pulp: red, pink, or white (which is more honey-colored than white). The color of the pulp doesn't affect the flavor. When buying grapefruit, select specimens that are smaller, thin-skinned, and heavy for their size. Some varieties are seedless. They're best in the winter and spring. Substitutes: ugli fruit (more flavorful, but don't cook it) OR pomelo (less acidic and less bitter) OR tangelo (tangerine-grapefruit cross)
jeruk purut See kaffir lime.
kabosu = kabosu lime Substitutes: lime
kaffir lime = jeruk purut = leech lime = limau purut = magrood = makroot = makrut Notes: Thai cooks use these golf ball-sized limes to give their dishes a unique aromatic flavor. Kaffir limes have very little juice, usually just the zest is used. Substitutes: citron OR lime OR kaffir lime leaves (One tablespoon of zest from a kaffir lime is equivalent to about six kaffir lime leaves.)
kalamansi = kalamansi lime = calamansi = calamansi lime = musk lime = musklime Notes: The very sour kalamansi looks like a small round lime and tastes like a cross between a lemon and a mandarin orange. It's very popular in the Philippines. Substitutes: calamondin (This is very similar to the kalamansi.) OR lemons OR mandarin oranges
key lime = Florida key lime = Mexican lime Notes: These are smaller and more acidic than the more common Persian limes. Substitutes: limes (Many cooks prefer freshly squeezed Persian lime juice over bottled key lime juice for key lime pies.)
kumquat Pronunciation: KUHM-kwaht Notes: These look like grape-sized oranges, and they can be eaten whole. The flavor is a bit sour and very intense. They peak in the winter months. Substitutes: limequats OR calamondin oranges OR Seville oranges (for marmalade)
leech lime See kaffir lime.
lemon Equivalents: One lemon yields about 2-3 tablespoons lemon juice. Notes: This very sour citrus fruit is rarely eaten out of hand, but it's widely used for its juice, rind, and zest. Varieties include the Eureka lemon, which is what you're most likely to find in markets, the Lisbon lemon, which shows up in the winter and is smaller and smoother than the Eureka, and the trendy Meyer lemon, which is much sweeter and pricier than an ordinary lemon. When buying lemons, select specimens that are smaller, thin-skinned, and heavy for their size. Substitutes: grapefruits (These make an interesting meringue pie.) OR limes OR citrons (These are used only for their peels.) OR lemongrass (in soups and marinades)
limau purut See kaffir lime.
lime Notes: These tart green fruits are similar to lemons, but they're more acidic and have their own unique flavor. Varieties include the common Persian lime = Tahiti lime and the smaller, less juicy, and more acidic Florida key lime = key lime = Mexican lime. When buying limes, select specimens that are dark green, smaller, thin-skinned, and heavy for their size. Equivalents: 1 lime yields about 2 tablespoons lime juice Substitutes: lemon (Lemons have a weaker flavor and are less acidic, so use a bit more to compensate.) OR kalamansi limequat Notes: This is a cross between a lime and a kumquat. It's similar in size and shape to a kumquat, but with a green or yellow-green skin. It has a strong lime flavor. Substitutes: kumquats (very similar in appearance, different flavor)
magrood See kaffir lime.
makroot See kaffir lime.
makrut See kaffir lime.
mandarin orange Notes: These have a pleasant enough flavor, but their big asset is that they come out of their peels and segment easily, so you can eat them in your good clothes. Varieties include the popular tangerine, the seedy but juicy honey tangerine = Murcott, the satsuma orange, the sweet and tiny clementine orange, and the seedy and orange-flavored temple orange. Substitutes: orange
Mexican lime See lime.
Meyer lemon Notes: This is sweeter than an ordinary lemon, and highly prized by gourmet chefs. It's a bit hard to find in supermarkets. Substitutes: ordinary lemons
musk lime See kalamansi (lime).
orange = sweet orange Notes: Most American oranges are produced in Florida and California. Florida oranges are juicier, and better suited to squeezing, while California oranges segment more easily and are better for eating out of hand. The best oranges are smaller, thin-skinned, and heavy for their size. Substitutes: blood orange (less acidic, red flesh) OR mandarin orange Or kumquats OR ugli fruit OR grapefruit OR pomelo (especially for marmalade)
Panama orange See calamondin (orange).
Persian lime See lime.
pigmented orange See blood orange.
pomelo = pummelo = Chinese grapefruit = shaddock Pronunciation: PUHM-uh-low Notes: This has a very thick peel, so you have to work hard to eat it. Many people think it's worth the trouble, for the pulp is milder and sweeter than its closest substitute, the grapefruit. Substitutes: grapefruit (more acidic and more bitter)
pummelo See pomelo.
rangpur lime Notes: This is similar to a mandarin orange, only more acidic. Substitutes: mandarin orange
satsuma orange See mandarin orange.
Seville orange = bitter orange = bigarade orange = sour orange Notes: These are too bitter for eating out of hand, but they make a wonderful orange marmalade and the sour juice is perfect for certain mixed drinks. Substitutes: (for the juice) Mix 1 part lime or lemon juice + 2 parts orange juice OR 2 parts grapefruit juice + 1 part lime juice + dash orange zest OR 2 parts lime juice + 1 page orange juice OR (for marmalade) kumquats OR (for marmalade) oranges
shaddock See pomelo.
Tahiti lime See lime.
tangelo Notes: There are several different varieties of tangelos, each a cross between a tangerine and another citrus fruit. The Mineola, a tangerine-grapefruit cross, is especially popular. Look for them in markets from late fall through winter. Substitutes: mandarin orange OR grapefruit OR orange
tangerine See mandarin orange.
temple orange See mandarin orange.
ugli fruit = Uniq fruit®
This grapefruit-mandarin cross looks like a grapefruit in an ill-fitting suit. It's sweet and juicy, though, and simple to eat since the peel comes off easily and the fruit pulls apart into tidy segments that are virtually seedless.
Americans pronounce the name "ugly," but in Jamaica, where it's grown, it's pronounced "HOO-glee." Some marketers have tried calling it "Uniq fruit®," but the name hasn't caught on much.
Ugli fruit are available from December through April. Most specimens are much uglier than the one pictured here, but don't let that deter you. Select fruits that are heavy for their size, and that give a little when you press them.
Substitutes: grapefruit (not as sweet) OR orange (smaller)
uniq fruit® See ugli fruit.
yuzu See citron.
Copyright © 1996-2005 Lori Alden