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barquette  Pronunciation:  bar-KEHT   Notes:    This is a small round or oval pastry shell that's usually topped with sweet or savory fillings.   Substitutes:   patty shell OR croustade OR tart shell


bread dough   Notes:   You can make this yourself, or buy ready-made dough in the frozen foods sections of your supermarket.  In addition to baking them into bread, you can use them to make breadsticks, pizza dough, buns, rolls, and bagels.

filo (dough)  See phyllo

filo pastry leaves   See phyllo.


gnocchi = potato gnocchi  Pronunciation:  NYOK-kee or NOHK-ee  Notes:   These Italian dumplings made from potatoes and other ingredients.  They're used much like pasta, either in soups or with sauces.   Substitutes:   gnochetti pasta OR orecchiette


kadaif  = knafeh = kataifi = konafa = konafah = shredded phyllo dough = shredded phylo dough = shredded filo dough = shredded fillo dough   Notes:   Cooks in Greece and the Middle East use this shredded dough to make sweet desserts.  You can find it among the frozen foods in Middle Eastern and Greek markets.  While working with it, cover any unused dough with a damp cloth.  To make your own:   Roll thawed phyllo dough into a log, then slice into 1/4-inch rounds.

kataifi  See kadaif

knafeh  See kadaif

konafa  See kadaif

konafah  See kadaif.

matzo ball = matzoh ball = knaidel     Notes:   Matzo balls are dumplings made from matzo meal, chicken fat, and eggs.  They're often cooked in water, and then served in chicken soup.  You can easily make them from scratch, or buy them in cans.  The plural of knaidel is spelled either knaidlech, knaidlach, or kneidlach.


masa = masa dough = fresh masa   Pronunciation:  MAH-suh  Notes:   This is a dough made from ground hominy that's widely used in Mexico to make tortillas and tamales.  There are two kinds:  The softer masa molida is used to make tortillas, while the coarser and thicker masa preparada is for tamales.  Hispanic markets often sell ready-made masa in the refrigerated section, but you can easily make your own if you have masa flour.  To make your own:   Beat 1 cup lard until fluffy, then mix in 3 cups masa flour, 2 teaspoons salt, and 2 cups water. 

mush  See polenta.

pate feuilletee  See puff pastry.


patty shell = pastry shell  Notes:  These are small cups made of puff pastry that are meant to hold individual portions of savory fillings.  Look for them in bakeries or among the frozen foods in supermarkets.  Substitutes:   barquette OR polenta (cut into rounds and fried)


pie pastry = pâte brisée = pate brisee = short pastry = pie crust dough   Notes:    This pie dough is easy enough to make at home, or you can find it ready-made among the frozen foods of most supermarkets.



phyllo = phyllo dough = filo = filo dough = fillo = fillo dough = phyllo pastry leaves = phylo = phylo dough = phylo pastry leaves = filo pastry leaves  = fillo pastry leaves     Pronunciation:  FEE-loh  Notes:  These are fragile, paper-thin sheets of dough that are usually basted with melted butter and then stacked until they're many layers thick. When baked, the combined layers make a rich, flaky, and crumbly crust.  Greeks use phyllo dough to make baklava and spanakopita, while phyllophiles elsewhere use it to make pie crusts, strudels, Beef Wellington, egg rolls, and countless other concoctions.   Some cooks use cooking spray instead of butter between the layers to trim fat and calories.  The dough dries out quickly, so work fast once you've opened the package, and cover any unused dough with plastic wrap topped with a damp towel.  Use fresh dough if you can find it; it doesn't tear as easily as the frozen kind.   The frozen version is often wedged near the pie shells in the supermarket's frozen food case; let it defrost in the refrigerator for 24 hours before using it. Try Greek or Middle Eastern markets for fresh.     Substitutes: strudel dough OR puff pastry dough 

phyllo pastry leaves  See phyllo


poi  Pronunciation:  POY  Notes:  Hawaiians make this out of taro root, which is cooked, pounded into a paste, and then sometimes fermented.  It's somewhat bland, and usually served as an accompaniment to other foods, much like mainlanders serve mashed potatoes.   


polenta = mush    Pronunciation:  puh-LEN-tah  Notes:   This Italian specialty is made of cornmeal that's been cooked into a thick mush.  The mush is either served hot, much as Americans would serve mashed potatoes, or it's cooled, sliced, and then fried, grilled, or baked.  It's easy to make at home, or you can get tubes of ready-made polenta in the refrigerated section of many supermarkets.


puff pastry = puff paste = pâté feuilletée = pate feuilletee = feuilletage = mille feuilles  Notes:  This is dough topped with chilled butter that's rolled out and folded again and again until there are hundreds of layers of butter and dough.  The dough expands and the layers separate when it's baked, creating a marvelously rich and flaky pastry.  Puff pastry is used to make croissants, Napoleons, Beef Wellington, pie crusts, and many other sweet and savory pastries.  You can make puff pastry yourself, but it's hard to improve on the ready-made stuff sold in the frozen foods section of many supermarkets.  Let frozen puff pastry defrost for about 30 minutes before you roll it out, but don't let it get too warm or it will become sticky.     Substitutes:  phyllo dough (This is harder to work with and it doesn't expand when baked like puff pastry.  It's also lower in fat, assuming that you use cooking spray rather than butter between the phyllo layers.)


seitan  = fu = kofu = wheat meat   Pronunciation:   SAY-tan   Notes:   This is a vegetarian meat substitute that's rich in protein, low in fat, and chewy enough to pass for steak or chicken.  It's made by mixing gluten flour or wheat flour with water, kneading it, washing away the starch with water, and then cooking the rubbery gluten that remains in a flavored broth.  The seitan can then be sliced or shaped however you like and then fried, steamed, baked, or added to stews.  Look for packages or tubs of it in the refrigerated sections of Asian markets and health food stores.  You can also buy it in the form of meat-flavored sausage, salami, and deli cuts.  Store seitan in the refrigerator for up to ten days, or for up to six months in the freezer.    Substitutes:  textured soy protein OR grilled eggplant OR tempeh OR portobello mushrooms OR atsu-age OR deep-fried tofu

strudel dough   Pronunciation:   STREW-dull   Notes:   This is used by German and Austrian cooks to make strudels, delicate pastries filled with sweet or savory fillings.  The dough is made up of many layers, each rolled into a tissue-thin, almost transparent sheet.  German cooks make strudels with it by stretching the dough and wrapping it around a filling, and then baking it.  It's hard to find, but your best bet is a German market.    Substitutes:  phyllo (Similar, but lower in fat.)

tart shell = pastry tart shell   


yufka = bourek dough = bourek sheets   Notes:   This is the Middle Eastern and North African version of phyllo dough, with leaves that are slightly thicker and sometimes round.  It's used to make savory pastries.   Substitutes:  phyllo OR spring roll wrappers


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