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bitters  Notes:   This is alcohol that's been heavily flavored with herbs, peels, bark, spices, and bitter-tasting roots.  Many brands were developed in the 1800s as elixirs that were supposed to cure indigestion, jaundice, and a variety of other ailments.  Due to these "medicinal" properties, bitters allowed drinkers to avoid both liquor taxes and social stigma.  The FDA put a stop to the medicinal claims in the early 1900s, and bitters quickly fell out of favor, except for a brief comeback during Prohibition.  Today, they're used to flavor cocktails, coffee, and various dishes.  Don't add more than a dash or two--bitters can easily overpower other flavors.  Bitter spirits are also called bitters, but they're not as intensely flavored.    Substitutes:   bitter spirits 



Angostura Bitters   Pronunciation:  an-guh-STOOR-eh  Notes:   This famous rum-based brand of bitters was first developed in the 1800s by Simon Bolivar's personal physician. It's 45% alcohol, and comes in small brown bottles with yellow caps.  It's now produced in Trinidad.   Substitutes: Peychaud's Bitters OR Fernet-Branca OR orange bitters OR Worcestershire sauce (in savory dishes) 

Orange Bitters  Notes:  These British brand is made from sour orange peels.   It's hard to find.  Substitutes:   orange liqueur

Peychaud's Bitters   Notes:   This is a brand of bitters that's a bit hard to find outside of New Orleans.   Substitutes:  Angostura Bitters (This works fine in a Sazerac.) OR Fernet-Branca 

Pommeranzen bitters = elixer longæ vitæ = elixer longae vitae   Notes:   This orange-flavored bitters is made in the Netherlands and Germany.  It comes in red and green versions.  


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